Define Data Types in Python#


As discussed in Objects, each object in vineyard comprises two components:

  1. The data payload, which is stored locally within the corresponding vineyard instance

  2. The hierarchical meta data, which is shared across the entire vineyard cluster

Specifically, a Blob represents the unit where the data payload resides in a vineyard instance. A blob object contains a segment of memory in the bulk store of the vineyard instance, allowing users to save their local buffer into a blob and later retrieve the blob in another process using a zero-copy approach through memory mapping.

>>> payload = b"Hello, World!"
>>> blob_id = client.put(payload)
>>> blob = client.get_object(blob_id)
>>> print(blob.typename, blob.size, blob)
vineyard::Blob 28 Object <"o800000011cfa7040": vineyard::Blob>

On the other hand, vineyard objects’ hierarchical meta data is shared across the entire cluster. In the following example, for the sake of simplicity, we will launch a vineyard cluster with two vineyard instances on the same machine. However, in real-world scenarios, these vineyard instances would typically be distributed across multiple machines within the cluster.

$ python3 -m vineyard --socket /var/run/vineyard.sock1
$ python3 -m vineyard --socket /var/run/vineyard.sock2

With this setup, we can create a distributed pair of arrays in vineyard, where the first array is stored in the first vineyard instance (listening to ipc_socket at /var/run/vineyard.sock1), and the second array is stored in the second instance (listening to ipc_socket at /var/run/vineyard.sock2).

>>> import numpy as np
>>> import vineyard
>>> import

>>> # build the first array in the first vineyard instance
>>> client1 = vineyard.connect('/var/run/vineyard.sock1')
>>> id1 = client1.put(np.zeros(8))
>>> # persist the object to make it visible to form the global object
>>> client1.persist(id1)

>>> # build the second array in the second vineyard instance
>>> client2 = vineyard.connect('/var/run/vineyard.sock2')
>>> id2 = client2.put(np.ones(4))
>>> # persist the object to make it visible to form the global object
>>> client2.persist(id2)

>>> # build the pair from client1
>>> obj1 = client1.get_object(id1)
>>> obj2 = client2.get_object(id2)
>>> id_pair = client1.put((obj1, obj2))

>>> # get the pair object from client2
>>> obj_pair = client2.get_object(id_pair)
>>> print(obj_pair.first.typename, obj_pair.first.size(), obj_pair.second.size())
vineyard::Array 8 4
>>> # get the pair value from client2
>>> value_pair = client2.get(id_pair)
>>> print(value_pair)
(None, [1, 1, 1, 1])

In this example, we can access the metadata of the pair object from client2 even though it was created by client1. However, we cannot retrieve the payload of the first element of the pair from client2, as it is stored locally within the first vineyard instance.

Creating Builders and Resolvers#

As demonstrated in Builders and resolvers, vineyard enables users to register builders and resolvers for constructing and resolving vineyard objects from/to client-side data types based on specific computational requirements.

For instance, if we use pyarrow types in our context, we can define the builder and resolver for the conversion between vineyard::NumericArray and pyarrow.NumericArray as follows:

>>> def numeric_array_builder(client, array, builder):
>>>     meta = ObjectMeta()
>>>     meta['typename'] = 'vineyard::NumericArray<%s>' % array.type
>>>     meta['length_'] = len(array)
>>>     meta['null_count_'] = array.null_count
>>>     meta['offset_'] = array.offset
>>>     null_bitmap = buffer_builder(client, array.buffers()[0], builder)
>>>     buffer = buffer_builder(client, array.buffers()[1], builder)
>>>     meta.add_member('buffer_', buffer)
>>>     meta.add_member('null_bitmap_', null_bitmap)
>>>     meta['nbytes'] = array.nbytes
>>>     return client.create_metadata(meta)

>>> def numeric_array_resolver(obj):
>>>     meta = obj.meta
>>>     typename = obj.typename
>>>     value_type = normalize_dtype(re.match(r'vineyard::NumericArray<([^>]+)>', typename).groups()[0])
>>>     dtype = pa.from_numpy_dtype(value_type)
>>>     buffer = as_arrow_buffer(obj.member('buffer_'))
>>>     null_bitmap = as_arrow_buffer(obj.member('null_bitmap_'))
>>>     length = int(meta['length_'])
>>>     null_count = int(meta['null_count_'])
>>>     offset = int(meta['offset_'])
>>>     return pa.lib.Array.from_buffers(dtype, length, [null_bitmap, buffer], null_count, offset)

Finally, we register the builder and resolver for automatic building and resolving: .. code:: python

>>> builder_ctx.register(pa.NumericArray, numeric_array_builder)
>>> resolver_ctx.register('vineyard::NumericArray', numeric_array_resolver)

In some cases, we may have multiple resolvers or builders for a specific type. For instance, the vineyard::Tensor object can be resolved as either numpy.ndarray or xgboost::DMatrix. To accommodate this, we could have:

>>> resolver_ctx.register('vineyard::Tensor', numpy_resolver)
>>> resolver_ctx.register('vineyard::Tensor', xgboost_resolver)

This flexibility enables seamless integration with various libraries and frameworks by effectively handling different data types and their corresponding resolvers or builders.

def xgboost_resolver(obj):

default_resolver_context.register('vineyard::Tensor', xgboost_resolver)

at the same time. The stackable resolver_context could help there,

with resolver_context({'vineyard::Tensor', xgboost_resolver}):

Assuming the default context resolves vineyard::Tensor to numpy.ndarray, the with resolver_context allows for temporary resolution of vineyard::Tensor to xgboost::DMatrix. Upon exiting the context, the global environment reverts to its default state.

The with resolver_context can be nested for additional flexibility.